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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

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	4 weeks and   under	6  months  and	Second  year
500 n n    400-	6  months                     ~	under   1   year                   ~	(1949 only)
•|   300J	\     Parity	-	
"   200-	\-4 &  over »              X                                                      ~	__ ___                                    _	X.
.*.	'\	'^.            ./	X                       s
~z		""*•-,                **"***-.'x'	•^             /
Jr    1 r\f\	\     'v 2 & 3'"^ — ''	\    '"X                                       y	""•--.       ~x—-,/
O     1 UU — «;n_	\2^X	\!S^	-------- ^~- ~~
16   20   25   30  35   40 and      16   20   25  30   35 40 and      16   20   25  30  35 40and
4 weeks and  under 6 months
500-i Mother's  age s\ 6-24 400 -j                    /
...25-29     -
30   -&
|   300-^. 200-
50-
Mother's age
6  months  and under  1   year
Second  year (1949 only)
12345  6-10 Hand 1 over
2345   6-10 Hand 1
over Mother's  parity
2&3
4 and over
Figure 2. (Top) Variations with mother's age of mortality ratios in infants, comparing mothers of different parities. (Bottom) Variations with mother's parity of mortality ratios in infants comparing mothers of different ages. (England and Wales, 1949-1950.)
aRatio between rates in a given population group and the average rate for the total population.
Sources: Heady and Morris (26), Morrison et al. (27).
appears in all maternal age groups. However, it is clearly more marked in the younger mothers (26).
Finally, they examined variations in mortality rates when each of the three factors—social class, maternal age, and family size—is controlled. When rates are compared, the findings shown in Figure 3 were obtained. Mortality ratios bring out the differences more dramatically, as is evident in Figure 4 (27). Mortality rates increase with family size in all social classes, but the effects are most powerful in the younger mothers, regardless of social class. (A young mother with a large family will, of course, have closely spaced children. Birth interval will be discussed later.) The authors comment:
The mortality ratio (though not, of course, the actual mortality rate) for fourth and higher children is in fact higher in classes I and II than in the other classes. It is clear, therefore, that the relatively high mortality rates among infants of young mothers with large families are not a phenomenon peculiar to any one social class due to some simple poverty factor. It is also true that the higher death rates in classes IV and V cannot be explained by the concentration of young mothers with large families in these classes. (27, pp. 104-105)bship, but this can only be undertaken when a survey of a total population or sample of the population has been conducted. (17, p. 549)